Place Names

Donostia / San Sebastian. History

The Civil War of 1936 was a major break for San Sebastian society, which had known a long period of peace since the end of the Second Carlist War. In those years, and since the middle of the 19th century, the capital of Gipuzkoa had been shaping itself as a city of services and tourism once it had freed itself from the corset of its walls. The advent of the Republic in 1931 did not mean a break in the summer holidays in Donostia although, as is logical to suppose, part of the aristocratic summer moved to the towns on the Basque-French coast from where they took part in various conspiratorial activities against the new regime. The Civil War, and the rapid campaign in Gipuzkoa - with the conquest of the capital on 13 September 1936 - meant a definitive break with the Donostia-San Sebastián of the first decades of the 20th century. Although the conflict did not affect the city too much and it escaped the street fighting and possible destruction, when the defenders of the Republic agreed to evacuate the city on 12 September (Barruso, 2001), the panorama that the Navarrese troops found was little short of desolate. Faced with the psychosis created by the destruction of Irun, and with rumours spreading that fires had broken out in the Gros neighbourhood, a major evacuation of the city took place. According to the Falangist newspaper .Unidad. 48% of the inhabitants of Donostia-San Sebastián reportedly left the city before the arrival of the rebel troops. After the capture of Donostia-San Sebastián, the usual process took place in occupied towns: the arrest of people who could be considered disaffected and the seizure of property belonging to organisations and individuals opposed to the uprising. But Donostia-San Sebastián also became one of the main towns in the rearguard of the rebel zone in which the differences Falangists and Carlists over the institutions of the New State in the province, as we shall see below, soon became apparent.

On the same day that Donostia-San Sebastián was occupied, the National Defence Board issued Decree 108, which decreed the seizure of all the assets of the parties and individuals who had opposed the uprising, among which Basque nationalist organisations were expressly mentioned. But, undoubtedly, the first sign of the breakdown of coexistence in the capital of San Sebastian was the arrest of those considered to be disaffected, who were concentrated in Ondarreta prison and in the improvised prison in Zapatari - possibly where the barracks of the Assault Guard, known as "El Infierno" (Hell), were located - and in the Kursaal. Soon the courts martial and the ution of prisoners began. Among the most prominent victims of Franco's repression were the Nationalist priests shot in October 1936 in the Hernani cemetery. To these must be added those uted in Oiartzun and in the quarry of Bera-Vera de Bidasoa, although we cannot give an approximate figure for the moment for those uted in the capital of San Sebastian. However, we can say that the number of people shot in the capital of Gipuzkoa is lower than in other provincial capitals. According to data from the Civil Register, September 1936 and July 1941, 159 people were uted in Donostia-San Sebastián.

uted in Donostia-San Sebastián (1936-1941)

  1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941
Enero 0 0 4 0 4 3
Febrero 0 2 1 0 3 2
Marzo 0 0 5 0 3 2
Abril 0 1 1 3 0 3
Mayo 0 1 4 4 1 1
Junio 0 1 10 6 1 1
Julio 0 2 1 4 4 1
Agosto 0 3 16 3 0  
Septiembre 3 1 0 4 0  
Octubre 16 1 1 10 0  
Noviembre 4 1 1 9 0  
Diciembre 2 0 2 3 0  
Total 25 13 46 46 16 13

Among those uted in the Donostia-San Sebastián capital was the socialist councillor Luis Iglesias Ansaño, who had been arrested in Alicante at the end of the Civil War. Iglesias, a brigade commissar, was imprisoned in Orihuela from where he was transferred to Donostia-San Sebastián in March 1940. Tried in a court martial on 27 April 1940, he was shot on 27 August of the same year. According to the data available, from February 1943 onwards it seems that there were no longer any prisoners condemned to death in Gipuzkoa, which does not mean that prisoners from Gipuzkoa were not uted elsewhere, but we can assume that the utions ended around the end of 1942 and beginning of 1943. But that does not mean that the repression stopped, as October 1936 and July 1945 we can locate at least 280 Gipuzkoans who had to appear before courts martial, of whom at least 25 were condemned to death.

However, despite military justice being the one that can have the most dramatic consequences, it is not the only jurisdiction set up by Francoism that had a significant impact on Donostia-San Sebastián. Chronologically, after the military justice , the application of Decree 108 had a significant effect. In order to carry out its provisions, the Provincial Commissions for the Seizure of Assets (C.P.I.B.) were created, and the one dealing with Gipuzkoa began to function in July 1937, despite the fact that its constitution dates from January of the same year. Although we do not have much information on the work of the Provincial Commission, in August 1939, that is, at the end of its existence, it estimated that it administered more than one hundred urban estates in Donostia-San Sebastián, representing some six hundred flats, which meant more than 44 million pesetas, or more than 268,000 euros, for the Francoist State's coffers.

But economic repression did not end with the actions of the Provincial Commission. Shortly before the end of the war, in February 1939, the Law of Political Responsibilities (L.R.P.) was published, which was extremely harsh and considered criminal actions such as having been a member of one of the political parties that opposed the uprising or fleeing in the face of the approach of the rebel troops. Only simple militants of trade union organisations were exempted from responsibility. In this way, a total of 306 Donostiarras were prosecuted by the Regional Court of Political Responsibilities, of which 143 were sentenced by the same court, which imposed penalties amounting to more than 65 million pesetas (394,122.70 euros), which means an average penalty of 275 euros for each of the defendants. Among the persons sentenced in application of the Law of Political Responsibilities, we can mention the republican mayor of Donostia-San Sebastián -Fernando Sasiain Baun- who is one of the thirteen people from San Sebastián sentenced to the total loss of their assets. Among those sentenced to this penalty in Donostia-San Sebastián were Julián Amilibia, brother of the Popular Front deputy for Gipuzkoa, and the commanders of the Civil Guard in Gipuzkoa, García Ezcurra and Saturnino Bengoa - who would become the head of the Ertzaña created by the Basque Government - and José Miguel Gomedio, provincial manager for Ezquerra Vasco, provincial manager for Ezquerra Vasca Federal, the political party led by the mayor of Donostia-San Sebastián, and prosecutor of the People's Court of Euzkadi, among others.

An outstanding case, which illustrates the extreme cruelty of the law, is that of councillor Luis Iglesias, who, as we have seen, had been shot in August 1940. Despite this circumstance, the Court imposed a fine of 100 pesetas in 1941 (equivalent to about 132 euros) on him in July 1941, to be paid by his relatives. But this circumstance is not exclusive to Iglesias, as it is ed in at least fifteen other cases of defendants in Gipuzkoa. Even people who had nothing to do with the uprising, and who were even murdered during the period in which Donostia-San Sebastián remained under Republican control - such as the case of the Military Commander of Gipuzkoa, León Carrasco Amilibia - are prosecuted under the Law of Political Responsibilities. However, in Carrasco's case, he was acquitted in July 1941. Despite the fact that the Law of Political Responsibilities extended its activity until 1945, in 1942, in view of the risk of collapse of the administration of Justice, a profound reform was decreed which greatly eased the application of the aforementioned law. Thus, despite the fact that in July 1945 the last case of political responsibilities of a San Sebastian citizen was dismissed, no conviction had been handed down since March 1943, the last of which fell on Fortunata Decimavilla, who was fined 250 pesetas for having gone into exile in France.

The last law that Francoism put into effect to retaliate against those who were not sympathetic to the regime was the Law for the Repression of Freemasonry and Communism, enacted in 1940. Despite its title, this law was mainly directed against Freemasons and its incidence is limited in the Basque Country, due to the scarce presence of Freemasons. In the case of Donostia-San Sebastián, only sixteen resident Freemasons were convicted in application of the aforementioned law. The repressive framework is completed with the purge that was carried out in all areas of work. There is still much to be studied on this subject, but we already know the data on two important sectors: Education and Local Administration. The case of Education is the one in which most progress has been made in recent years and we can already state that 31% of the teachers posted in the capital of Gipuzkoa were sanctioned, of whom 27 were expelled from teaching. On the other hand, only three secondary school teachers were sanctioned, although in two cases they were expelled from the corps (Barruso, 2002). As far as the Local Administration is concerned, of the 1,369 municipal employees in Donostia-San Sebastián, 401 disappeared as a result of the war. Of the remainder, 283 were dismissed in the early stages, followed, as Félix Luengo points out, by another hundred in the following months (Luengo, 2000, p.414).

After the occupation of Donostia-San Sebastián, the city became one of the main places in the occupied zone. A large colony of Madrileños, and above all Catalans, meant that Donostia-San Sebastián soon recovered from the conflict. But, despite being a rearguard city, it was not spared from the political struggle the different political groups that supported the uprising. The monarchists of Renovación Española, absent in the rest of the province, were the first to react and on 14 September - that is, the day after the occupation of the city - they once again published El Diario Vasco. Its editor, Ramón Sierra Bustamante, was appointed Civil Governor and was responsible for appointing the new Donostia City Council. This was appointed on 7 October 1936, and was headed by the monarchist lawyer José Múgica y Múgica, who presided over a town council with a Carlist majority (9 councillors) and Falangist representation (5 councillors), the monarchists (2 councillors) and another two councillors with no known political affiliation.

But Múgica did not last long at the head of the Donostia City Council. Differences the political groups forced his dismissal and his exile to Estella in February 1937. Another monarchist -José María Angulo- was placed at the head of the Town Council, with the traditionalists increasing their representation from nine to eleven councillors, to the detriment of the Falangists, who saw their presence reduced to three councillors. For their part, the monarchists also increased their representation to five councillors. But Angulo's mayoralty did not last either. As a consequence of the unification of the Falange Española y de las JONS and the Comunión Tradicionalista into the new single party FET y de las JONS, the mayor was dismissed in October 1937 and in his place was appointed the traditionalist Antonio Paguaga, who managed to achieve a balance the different political families and consolidate a council that continued its activity until 1942. That year, as a consequence of the political crisis that arose from the Begoña attack and the growing confrontation the Guipuzcoan Carlists and the Regime, the mayor was dismissed and replaced by Rafael Lataillade, a monarchist, Delegate of the Ministry of Industry and signatory - in 1943 - of a letter addressed to Franco in which he asked for a monarchist alternative to the Regime. Despite this, he remained in office until 1948. During his term of office, the decision was taken to move the Town Hall from its former site - the current Municipal Library - to its current location, the old Casino, which had been closed since 1923, when Primo de Rivera banned gambling in Spain.

Mayors of Donostia-San Sebastián during Franco's regime (1936-1975)

Mayor  Mandat
Jose Muxika Septembre 1936-mars 1937
Jose Maria Angulo mars 1937-septembre 1937
Antonio Paguaga Septembre 1937-août 1942
Rafael Lataillade 1942ko maiatza 1947ko abendua
Felix Azpilikueta Janvier 1948-février 1949
Javier Saldaña Février 1949-avril 1952
Joan Pagola Avril 1942-Février 1958
Antonio Vega de Seoane Février 1958- Juin 1961
Nicolas Lasarte Juin 1961- Juin 1964
Jose Manuel Elosegi Juin 1964-septembre 1968
Miguel Muñoa Septembre 1968-juin 1969
Ugarteko Felipe Juin 1969- Mars 1974
Francisco Lasa mars 1974-mars 1977
Fernando de Otazu mars 1977-septembre 1978

When the first organic "elections" took place in November 1948, the mayor's office was held by Félix Azpilicueta, who had replaced Javier Saldaña, who had been dismissed in December 1947. The elections organised by Francoism divided municipal power into three thirds (family, trade union and entities), of which only in the first, and with many restrictions, could direct voting be exercised. For the election of the family third, only heads of family had the right to vote, provided they were not affected by any of the numerous causes for exclusion that existed and which basically sought to exclude the supposedly "disaffected" and to promote an almost plebiscitary result for the candidates of the Movement. In the case of Donostia-San Sebastián, with more than 100,000 inhabitants, the number of people entitled to vote was reduced to just over 31,000. In the other thirds, voting was even more restrictive. In the trade union third, only the trade union delegates voted (40 in the case of Donostia-San Sebastián), while the representatives of the third of entities were elected by the councillors of the previous two thirds from among the people designated by the entities that had the right to representation in Donostia-San Sebastián. The result was a council made up of four councillors with Falangist affiliation, four traditionalists and ten considered "without affiliation", including the first woman councillor of the Donostia-San Sebastián City Council: Eloísa Velasco. The post of Mayor fell to Javier Saldaña - a navy officer and Falangist - who remained in office until 1952. That year, Antonio Pagola was appointed head of the municipality, to be succeeded in 1958 by Antonio Vega de Seoane, mayor until 1961. That year he was succeeded by Nicolás Lasarte and in 1964 by José Manuel Elósegui. The successor - José Miguel Muñoa - only remained in office from October 1968 to June 1969, when he was succeeded by one of the most controversial mayors of Francoism, Felipe de Ugarte, who held municipal power until December 1974. The last mayors of the regime were Francisco Lasa (March 1974 to March 1977) and Fernando de Otazu, who in September 1978 gave way to the Gestora Municipal presided over by the socialist Ramón Jáuregui, who held municipal power until the Municipal Elections of 1979, in which the nationalist Jesús María Alkain was elected mayor.

The effects of the war were soon overcome in Donostia-San Sebastián and the exodus of the population was soon compensated for, and not only by the presence of foreigners who came to the city as a rearguard for the "national zone". Many of the Donostiarras who left their homes when the rebel troops entered the city returned home, although not without some problems and in some cases their houses were occupied by refugees from the Republican zone (Barruso, 1999 b). But apart from the conflict, Donostia-San Sebastián became the main cultural centre of the rebels. Magazines such as La Ametralladora, directed by Miguel Mihura, and the Falangist weekly Vértice, in which Eugenio D'Ors, Pedro Laín Entralgo and Dionisio Ridruejo, among others, collaborated, were published in the capital of Gipuzkoa. In addition to those mentioned above, many intellectuals and writers lived in the city during the war. This is the case of Josep Pla, Manuel Aznar and Víctor de la Serna.

The end of the conflict, and the transfer of numerous authorities of the New State to Madrid, meant that the capital of San Sebastián declined somewhat with respect to its "boom" during the war. Soon, rationing and the "estraperlo" (a kind of black market) made their appearance, even though the Basque Country was not one of the areas where the crisis was felt most harshly. However, the outbreak of the Second World War - Donostia-San Sebastián became a place of refuge for people fleeing the Nazis - and the fact that Franco chose the city as his summer residence - after the City Council of Donostia-San Sebastián bought the Palace of Ayete, belonging to the Duchess of Bailén - partly mitigated the loss of the city's political weight during the Civil War. The end of World War II put the regime in a difficult situation. Although the opposition began to manifest itself timidly in the interior, its activities did not go beyond the merely symbolic, as in the case of the ikurriña which, in 1946, was placed by Joseba Elósegui on the tower of the Buen Pastor cathedral, or the fact that in 1947 nationalists managed to jam Radio San Sebastián and broadcast a message from the lehendakari Aguirre on the occasion of the Aberri Eguna.

The consolidation of the regime in the 1950s, following the pact with the United States, meant the admission of Francoism into the international community, which allowed the regime to maintain itself and to undergo a process of significant social and economic development, once the autarkic tendencies had been abandoned. As far as Donostia-San Sebastián was concerned, the transformations began in 1949. That year the bishopric of San Sebastián was created, with the episcopal see falling to the Catalan prelate Jaime Font Andreu. The development of associations was promoted from the Donostia headquarters, mainly through the Brotherhood of Catholic Action Workers (HOAC) and the Catholic Workers' Youth (JOC), organisations which, over time, became the basis for a feeling of opposition to the regime and the transmission of Basque sentiments, which was seen in the support for the strikes of 1951 and 1956, unlike the strike of 1947, which had hardly any repercussions in the city. Perhaps the most outstanding element of the social weight of the Church in the years of Francoism was the agreement, adopted in 1947, to build the colossal statue of the Sacred Heart on the top of Mount Urgull, a matter that was apparently even opposed by some councillors - who advocated a more discreet location - but which was finally carried out.

But perhaps the most important transformation that the city underwent 1950 and 1970 was the urban development. In the 1950s, industry in the capital had experienced a notable increase (Azucarera del Ebro, Koipe, Savin...) which resulted in a significant increase in population, from just over 100,000 inhabitants in 1940 to 135,000 in 1960. This demographic growth, as is logical to suppose, meant an urban development that took place fundamentally 1940 and 1960. For the great urban development of Donostia-San Sebastián, the old project to urbanise the area the María Cristina Bridge and the Iron Bridge was revived. Various vicissitudes and the Civil War postponed the project until 1947, when the first two buildings on Avenida de Sancho el Sabio began to be built. 1950 and 1960 the rest of the buildings were constructed up to Plaza de Pío XII, where in 1955 the new Civil Government and the building of the Instituto Nacional de Previsión (National Social Security Institute) were built. In 1961, after Vega de Seoane resigned, as mentioned above, Nicolás Lasarte became mayor. The new mayor, a former requeté and ex-combatant, was closely linked to the Caja de Ahorros Municipal, of which he was president. Closely linked to the city, a member of several popular societies and president of the Orfeón Donostiarra, during his term of office the centenary of the demolition of the city walls was celebrated and the illuminations of Monte Urgull (1963) - inaugurated during the Semana Grande when the first International Fireworks Competition was held - and of La Concha (1964) were inaugurated. During his term of office, the Catalan association "Amigos de San Sebastián", made up almost entirely of Catalans who took refuge in the city during the Civil War, financed the construction of the luminous fountain in the Plaza de Pío XII. But his term of office also included events such as the floods of 1963 and the fire that destroyed the Post Office building in the Plaza del Buen Pastor. The term of office of his successor - José Manuel Elósegui (1964-1968) - is considered by Luengo to be the "years of greatest urban expansion in the city, with a frenetic pace of construction and real estate business". This paper industrialist, president of the Chamber of Commerce and of the Paper and Graphic Arts Union, was responsible for the inauguration of the exhibition installed in the Plaza de Pío XII to commemorate the "25 years of peace" organised by the regime to mark the anniversary of the end of the Civil War.

Similarly, the 1960s saw greater openness in cultural and information matters. The so-called "Fraga Law" of 1966 allowed greater freedom in the press and in associations, but political openness was non-existent. Nationalist sentiment developed considerably in those years and allowed the proliferation of ikastolas, which were regularised throughout the 1960s. However, disinterest in the regime was becoming increasingly evident. The 1963 elections, in which the three councillors of the family third only received little more than 3,000 votes, ed that the people of San Sebastián were distancing themselves from the "representative" bodies offered to them by the regime. Although the opposition was still scarce and not very organised, the end of the 1960s saw the emergence of what was to become one of the main problems in the long run: the violence of ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna-Euskadi and Freedom). From 1968 onwards, when ETA assassinated the commissioner of the Political and Social Brigade - Melitón Manzanas - the atmosphere became increasingly tense. That same year, on the occasion of the Aberri Eguna, the Public Order Forces carried out a hitherto unknown deployment in the city. In August 1968, the first "state of emergency" was d. In 1970, the city experienced the echoes of the 'Burgos Process' with a general strike that paralysed Donostia-San Sebastián and ETA kidnapped the German consul in the Donostia-San Sebastián capital.

At the same time, in June 1969, one of the most controversial Franquist mayors in Donostia-San Sebastián occupied the mayor's office: Felipe de Ugarte y Lambert de Sainte-Croix. Ugarte, delegate of the Ministry of Information and Tourism, volunteer during the war and provisional ensign, took some of the most important decisions for the city. Among those that can be considered successful, we can mention the sale of the San Sebastián Municipal Telephone Company to the National Telephone Company of Spain, which meant that the telephone experienced an important development in the city, given the growing demand for lines and the multiple problems involved in attending to them. During his term of office, the City Council acquired the Miramar Palace for the city, whose park was made available to the people of San Sebastian and its facilities, once restored, have become the venue for cultural events in the city. However, his mandate contains decisions that can be considered controversial to say the least. We are referring to the demolition, in 1973, of two emblematic buildings in Donostia-San Sebastián. The Kursaal and the "El Chofre" bullring. It took almost three decades for the city to recover a building on the site of the old Kursaal and for a modern bullring to be built on the Illunbe grounds. That same year, the palace known as Torres de Arbide, made up of three buildings, two of them twins, located at the junction of Calle Echaide and Paseo de los Fueros, was demolished - amidst great controversy. When the Caja de Ahorros Municipal acquired the building, they were dismantled stone by stone and moved to Miramón, where they can still be seen today.

In 1970, parallel to the construction of the Amara neighbourhood as far as Anoeta, other neighbourhoods were developed in which the lack of facilities and urbanisation was evident. This was above all the "eastern corridor" in which the neighbourhoods of Roteta, Buenavista and La Paz flourished, promoted by the National Housing Institute in 1967 and Bidebieta. The development of the city generated the need for new facilities, and 1959 and 1960 the Health Residence and the Gipuzkoa Hospital were inaugurated in Zorroaga, with the old Manteo Hospital disappearing. In the final area of Amara, in Anoeta, a sports city was created with athletics , a velodrome (1970) and the construction of the Ice Palace (1973). Transport also underwent an important evolution. In 1953 the Plazaola Railway disappeared and in 1958 the Hernani tramway disappeared. In 1954, the Topo station was moved from Peñaflorida Street to its current location in Easo Square. In 1968, with the disappearance of the urban tramway, the trolleybuses began to be replaced by buses and in the early seventies, in view of the development of road traffic, the city's first underground car parks were opened. In 1971, the Donostia-San Sebastián bypass was opened, which meant that a large part of the traffic on the N-I did not pass through the city. By the 1970s, Donostia-San Sebastián had undergone an enormous urban transformation that shaped the city for several decades, until in more recent times a new remodelling of the city was undertaken that has shaped the Donostia-San Sebastián of the 21st century.

Ugarte was dismissed in 1974, after new elections were held, and was replaced by Francisco Lasa, a fishing boat owner, president of the vertical fishing union from 1959 to 1971 and councillor on the Town Council from 1970. The complexity and development of the city is evident from the increase in the municipal budget, which by 1975, already amounted to 660 million pesetas. During his term of office, work was completed on the "variante" (ring road), inaugurated in 1975, and the Añarbe reservoir, with which the city's water supply was significantly improved. The construction of the dam put an end to the water supply problem that had been dragging on since the 19th century. Although the water supply was initially from the River Añarbe, the typhus epidemic of 1902, which caused forty deaths and was blamed on the contamination of the water, forced the purchase of the Artikutza estate in 1919. The increase in consumption led to the creation, in 1968, of the "Mancomunidad de Aguas del Añarbe" to deal with the problem, which was solved with the inauguration of the aforementioned dam. That same year, 1975, the monumental space "Peines del Viento" was inaugurated, the work of the architect Peña Ganchegui and the San Sebastian sculptor Eduardo Chillida, who died in 2002.

On a cultural level, the city also underwent significant development. In 1956, the University and Technical Studies of Gipuzkoa (EUTG) were created, partly to alleviate the lack of university studies in the city. In 1961, the University of Navarre inaugurated the School of Engineering in the current building of the "Koldo Mitxelena Cultural Centre" and in 1968 the Faculty of Law was created, dependent on the University of Valladolid. The launch of the International Film Festival in 1953 gave an important boost to tourism in the city and the organisation of events to attract or prolong the stay of holidaymakers in the city. But the cultural life of Donostia-San Sebastián also had other attractions, such as the work of the "Círculo Cultural Guipuzcoano", reopened in 1945 and chaired by the doctor Leandro Martín Santos. In the 1960s, culture in the Basque language took off in a big way. The creation of the group "Ez dok Amairu" by Basque singer-songwriters such as Mikel Laboa, Xabier Lete, Benito Lertxundi... most of them from San Sebastian, had a great impact. Cultural initiatives such as those promoted by the "Ramos" bookshop, a literary meeting place, and other bookshops such as "Manterola", "Graphos" or "Lagun" helped to develop the cultural life of the city. In the field of art, the "Gaur" group - which included artists such as Jorge Oteiza, Eduardo Chillida, Remigio Mendiburu, Amable Arias, Rafael Ruiz Balerdi and José Luis Zumeta - made a decisive contribution to the cultural development of the city. In terms of music, the concerts organised by the "Asociación de Cultura Musical" (Association of Musical Culture), which gave way to the "Quincena Musical" (Musical Fortnight) and the Jazz Festival, which began to be held in 1965 in the remodelled Plaza de la Trinidad, were of particular note.

On 20 November 1975, Francisco Franco died, but his death did not mean the immediate disappearance of the regime he had established. The mayor, Francisco Lasa, remained in office after the death of the dictator, but the political environment was becoming increasingly complicated. ETA terrorism broke into the city on 4 March 1976, assassinating José María Araluce - president of the Provincial Council - his driver and three policemen from his bodyguard. The following day the extreme right appeared in Donostia-San Sebastián and the events in Vitoria-Gasteiz and Montejurra marked the political pulse. In 1977, political change was on the horizon, and on 19 January of that year the ikurriña was legalised, which was flown on the night of the city's patron saint's day in the Plaza de la Constitución. In March 1977, Lasa stepped down as mayor and was replaced by Fernando de Otazu, deputy mayor. However, his term of office was short and after the 1977 elections the councillors expressed their desire to resign. Finally, on 24 September 1978, and presided over by the socialist Ramón Jáuregui, the Municipal Management Committee took office, which included representatives of the PSOE (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party) (6), EAJ-PNV (Eusko Alderdi Jeltzalea-Basque Nationalist Party) (6), Gipuzkoa Unida (3), and a representative of the PCE (Basque Nationalist Party) (6), Gipuzkoa Unida (3), and one representative each from the PCE (Basque Communist Party), Euskadiko Ezkerra, EIA (Euskal Iraultzale Alderdia-Basque Revolutionary Party), EMK (Communist Movement of Euskadi-Euskal Mogimendu Komunista), ESB (Euskal Sozialista Biltzarrea-Basque Socialist Party), Basque Christian Democracy and Independent Democrats. With the inauguration of the Gestora, which governed the City Council on an interim basis until the first municipal elections were held since 1931, the long chapter of Francoism in Donostia-San Sebastián came to an end.

  • BARRUSO BARÉS, Pedro: "Los siglos XIX y XX" en Gómez Piñeiro, F. Javier-Sáez García, Juan Antonio: Geografía e Historia de Donostia-San Sebastián, Instituto Geográfico Vasco "Andrés de Urdaneta", Donostia-San Sebastián, 1999, pp. 95-120.
  • BARRUSO BARÉS, Pedro: "El difícil regreso. La política del Nuevo Estado ente el exilio guipuzcoano en Francia" en Boletín Sancho El Sabio, nº 11, pp. 101-140, Vitoria 1999.
  • BARRUSO BARÉS, Pedro: "La misión diplomática del embajador francés Jean Herbette durante la Guerra Civil" en Bulletin d'Histoire Contemporaine de l'Espagne, nº 28-29, décembre 1998-juin 1999, Aix en Provence, 2001, pp. 120-134.
  • BARRUSO BARÉS, Pedro: "La destrucción de la convivencia. Represión y Primer Franquismo en Gipuzkoa" en Guerras Civiles i posguerras, Lleida, 2002, pp. 656-668.
  • LUENGO TEIXIDOR, Félix: "En la memoria cercana: 1936-2000" en Artola, Miguel (Ed.) Historia de Donostia-San Sebastián, Ed. Nerea, Ayuntamiento de Donostia-San Sebastián, Donostia-San Sebastián, 2000, pp. 347-478.