French Revolution

France is transformed in the ten years of the Revolution. The Old Regime disappears, and with it the monarchy and absolutism. A constitution is created, for the first time the state is organized based on laws voted by the citizens. The distribution of powers occurs: legislative power, utive power and judicial power. The idea that power emanates from the people is generalized and the concepts of democracy begin to be developed. The political character of the state is strengthened and it is homogenized as a consequence of the equality of the laws. The provinces disappear and the departments are created, centralizing the state more and more. The National Army is created, the financial is reformed creating a central bank and a single currency. The political ideas, the symbology, the new social, economic and political culture will be the basis of the next century. Public opinion will be organized around the new symbols (right/left). Along with this, political culture, political publications and the press developed.

It is a revolution led by the bourgeoisie and the economic reforms are favorable to their interests. The lands of the nobles and the clergy who have left are redistributed, remaining in the hands of the bourgeoisie. A new method of collecting taxes is put into operation through which the state controls the collection of taxes and the obligation of all citizens to pay them. The nobility loses its privileges and its functions, it ceases to have influence in the administration of the state although it maintains certain economic power. The clergy have lost their property and their influence is limited to their land, the church; the state is secular. A few peasants have become rich, but the situation of the majority has not changed. Education has been centralized and homogenized, with French becoming the main language of the revolution.

It can be said that the French Revolution supposes the transition from one political to another: from a society organized into estates, where a few have privileges to the detriment of the majority, to a bourgeois mercantile society that controls the economy and defends the concept of human equality. The mercantile bourgeoisie that is part of the Third Estate, overturn feudal society and build the foundations of a class society in which the bourgeoisie is the one that manages the . To reinforce this political , reinforce the ideological character of the state. Through the revolution, he will unite the concepts of State and Nation with the objective of strengthening the bases of the new economic and political . It will be the time of the birth of the Nation-State in Europe and in turn of the nations without a state.