Basque word equivalent, from the etymological point of view, to the Spanish "guerrero". It is consigned in Aizquivel's 1838 Basque-Spanish Dictionary (published in Tolosa 1883-1885) with the meaning of "combatant", "athlete", "fighter", "fighter", "fighter", "fighter", "fighter", "militia" and "soldadesca", but its root gudua appears as "war" in the supplement to the t. II of the Trilingual Dictionary of Fr. Larramendi, using it frequently Astarloa (II, V) and Iztueta in his "Historia de Guipúzcoa". Azkue classifies the word as common and translates it only as "military", "militaire"; he documents it in the Refranes y Sentencias of 1596 and in Axular (3.°-10-16). The word was popularized in the 20th century through the use of it in nationalist literature, especially after the war of 1936-1939. During the war, this name was given first to the nationalist volunteers and then to those called up after the establishment of the Basque Government. 

The Official Journal of the GV thus translates the Castilian word "militiaman" as "gudari", unifying, de lege, both terms although, in fact, only nationalist fighters continued to be popularly known as gudari. From these dates to the present day, this word has been used as the title of various periodicals, such as: Gudari. Jaungoikua eta Lagizarra, Bilbao, 1936 (Nv. 4) 1937. Weekly magazine; Gudari. Weekly graphic magazine of Euzko-Gudaroztea, Bilbao, 1937; Gudari. Por una Euskadi independiente (Buenos Aires?), 1959. n. 1 (unique?); Gudari. For a free Euzkadi in a united Europe. Official organ of EGI. Caracas, 1961; Gudari. Aldizkari abertzalea. Gora Bermeoko Alderdi Jeltzalea, n. 1 printed in 1980. Nowadays, the nationalist left also uses this word with the broader meaning of "fighter". We refer the reader who is looking for information on the number of gudaris to the heading EJERCITO.


Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)