Talking about village barbers, bleeders, ministrants or lady nurses takes us to other ages of the sanitarians profession of Nursing. From XIV century barbers to the present time nursing professionals there has been a lot of changes.

Gipuzkoa was not alien to what happened in other places more or less close to it, being the history of healthcare very similar to the one of the world it belonged to. Intuitive nursing gave way to oral tradition by elders in every family or community, being the X and XV centuries when people, first by charity, novelty and affection, later by a salary were identified as the ones dedicated to attend the basic needs of disease affected.

It won't be until XVI century when the writings that formed and organize people caring after sick people were found. The former paid special attention to anything related to birth, and maybe because of that, to the activity with the feminine world. The first mention to nurses as a complement to the toil that from IX century was being developed by religious orders (as seen in previous chapter) belongs to this age. This intimate relationship nurses and religion gave to their jobs a spiritual sense, in which the feelings as a reflection of a vocation were prevalent. The need to properly prepare the people advocated to such jobs was the result of their almost complete submission to the religious administration. The latter was in charge of managing the healthcare because it knew the most efficient remedies. The nurse, subsidiary of the religious, had no option to increase her knowledge and hence her job was considered as domestic, without social appreciation.

In XVII and XVIII centuries the rules of the different religious orders for caring after sick people were kept. The nurses' change of attitude would not take place until XIX century where acquired knowledge was added to their good character.

In Bikaia since the momento Don Diego López de Haro founded the Village and gave the Puebla Letter, on the 15th June 1300, there existed The Magdalena's or Saint Lazaro's as medieval hospitals. The Saint Hospital was created by the end of XV century. It is written on the General Regulation dated on the 6th December 1645 that these institutions would work only as "shelters for Bilbao natives and neighbors, miserable, old and lacking ranch".

In Álava, despite the fact that there are data about Hermit Hospitals from 1167, the most famous case is that of the hospital people of the Santiago Apostle of Vitoria Hospital ruled as "healing hospital". They are known since 1466, although they were likely to be present since the hospital foundation in 1418. Also in 1514 there are references about Saint Joseph Hospital.

In Gipuzkoa, from 1485 to 1900, the number of either hospital or aid centers was very scarce. There were only eight centers. There are 1485 data about Saint Lazaro Hospital in the Saint Martin neighborhood off San Sebastián. From 1535 to 1719 it is known the existence of Saint Antonio Abad Hospital in the Saint Catalina suburb. Lately, in 1787, the latter hospital was moved to 31st August Street and in 1888 to the Navarra Avenue located in Manteo. The Tolosa hospital was inaugurated in 1860.

As a consequence of the aforementioned laws in 1855 and 1857 years the first professional associations of the nursing history of the Basque Country were created. When practitioners were given birth, they were integrated within the Bleeders College, differing from them only in the titling until in 1867 when the practice of the activity was forbidden if the OK wasn't given by the Faculties of Medicine after two years study and hospital practices.

During the second carlista war there was a bleeder surgeon in every battalion. He who was the practitioner in every village was contracted by the Town Hall. The long period of time of the different calista wars make the Ministry of War be where the most documentation about this matter existed. It was in charge of naming the different bleeder surgeons for every battalion.

In 1904 the nurses' and practitioners' careers are regulated. Two years later, the arrival at Spain of Queen Victoria Eugenia arrived was of great importance, since she brought in the Nightingale philosophy and soon the Men Section of the Red Cross was complemented by the Women Section, founded by the Queen.

Constitution of the Guipúzcoa Practisioners College

In 1915 it is published the "Practitioners Bulletin" and the legal recognition of the Dr Rubio's religious nurses.

In 1917 it is born the Basque–Navarrese Federation of Practitioners Colleges. The meeting was held on 24th September 1918 under the presidency of Mr. Iglesias and with the president of the College Mr. Martinez de Pinillos acting as vicepresident. Representatives of the six northern colleges assisted (Álava, Gipuzkoa, Logroño, Navarra, Santander and Vizcaya) apart from Mr. Monfledo, Provincial Health Inspector of Logroño, agreeing by acclamation the following agreements:

Work for profession dignification.

Create "The North of Spain Practitioners Union".

Require the affiliation as mandatory.

Require all the job vacants foreseen by the law to be filled up.

To pursue the encroachment of roles/competences.

Ask for the suppression of restrictions to births assistance .

Propose to all Spanish Colleges to create the "The Body of Spanish Practitioners".

In 1918 the North of Spain (Álava, Gipuzkoa, Logroño, Navarra, Santander and Vizcaya) Practitioners Union was born. And in 1921 the National Federation of Practitioners was born.

In 1927 the first "Official Nursing" was created and two years later, in 1929, the mandatory licensing was established. This would change in a notably way sanitary outlook in general and nursing in particular. In 1928 midwives were integrated into the Practitioners College.

The 1936 events found the country lacking of a medical–sanitary infrastructure capable of facing the lot of daily needs. It was necessary to improvise hospitals and endow the existing ones with a minimum of personal ready to attend wounded and sick. Some abbeys were converted into military hospitals, being numerous the religious orders which lent themselves to such goal: The Saint Vicente de Paúl Daughters of Charity, Santa Ana's, Saint Jose's Sisters, Carmelites of Charity, Mothers of Teaching, Mercedaria Sisters, Consolation Sisters, Mothers of the Sacred Heart, Irish Mothers, Mary 's handmaids, Jesus' handmaids, Clarise Mothers, Sisters of the Cross, Little Sisters of the Poor.

Due to the great amount of women that lent their services at hospitals, more often than with no more knowledge but their good will, some little workshops were held. A total of 5506 of Military Sanity Auxiliary Ladies were formed through 116 workshops, and the High State, in May 1938 created the ID document for Auxiliary Ladies, reaching by the end of the civil war 12.307 licenses nurses and auxiliaries.

The Red Cross of the Basque Country was created in 1937 in compliance with what stipulated in the Basque Country Provisional Government Decree. In it, it was named as “Association for the Aid to Wounded in act of Campaign, Calamities and Public Sinister Events”.

In 1940 the Michelin and "Cementos Rezola" companies were the first ones in Guipúzcoa to have a practitioner in their workforce. In 1942 the Mandatory Health Insurance was created. And in 1944 the Official Auxiliary Sanitarian Colleges were created with independent sections for Practitioners, Nurses and Midwives. Its headquarters was in Pedro Egaña.

During year 1953 the professional titrations for Midwife, Practitioner and Nurse were unified under the Registered General Nurse (RGN). In 1954 and by means of the 20th March Order of the Governance Ministry, the National Council Regulation of Auxiliary Sanitarians was approved. During the same year and by means of the 30th July Order the Statutes of the Provisional Sanitary Colleges were approved. They are divided up into three sections: Practitioners, Midwives and Nurses. In 1955 the Midwives Colleges in Gipuzkoa was constituted.

The 13th January 1958 Order lays out the mandatory licensing for the Registered General Nurses, having to do it at the Practitioners Section the male nurses, in the Nurses Section the female nurses and in the Midwives Section the female RGNs specialized in obstetric assistance. On 1st April 1977 the Practitioners, Nurses and Midwives Colleges were unified. On 10th October 1978, the Statutes of Registered General Nurses College Organization by Royal Decree 1856/1978 dated on 29th June.

The first democratic elections are already celebrated during 1978 with the unified College and during 1983 the Sanitary Map of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country was published. Also the Basque Country territorial sanitary ordination.

In 1979 and by Royal Decree the conversion of the Registered General Nurse School in University School of Nursing.

On 21st November 1997 the educational nursery unit of Donostia was transformed into the present Certified on Nursing School of San Sebastián – Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea – Basque Country University.

There also existed pharmacy practitioners, ministrants, nurses, barbers, minor surgery practitioners, nurse of the infectious pavilion, etc…